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Zinc oxide nanopowder is a nontoxic inorganic zinc-oxide particle with antibacterial, antifungal, anti-corrisive and catalytic properties. It is a versatile metal nanoparticle with high potential in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility, low cost and excellent stability. It has been used in a wide range of biomedical applications including cancer detection and drug delivery.
zno nanopowder has shown antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo against bacteria, such as E. coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. mutans. It is known that the antibacterial activity of zno nanopowder is dependent on its surface chemistry, size distribution, and morphology. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of zno is influenced by the amount of Zn2+ ions that is released during interaction with cells.
The presence of eluted Zn2+ in bacterial cells results in the disruption of cell walls and permeability of the cell, resulting in the death of the bacteria. It is also known that the growth inhibition of bacterial cells by zno nanopowder is based on its bactericidal effect as it inhibits the transcription of oxidative stress-resistance genes.
Besides its antibacterial and anticancer properties, zno nanopowder is also known for its anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. In addition, it is reported that zno NPs can be loaded on biodegradable scaffolding and polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin electrospun membranes which could enhance periodontal regeneration and prevent gingivitis. Also, the coating of orthodontic wires and brackets with chitosan NPs and zno NPs reduces friction between stainless steel wires and teeth and enhances anchorage control of orthodontic appliances.