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carbon nanopowder (CNPs) is a black powder derived from carbonized biomass and is widely used for reinforcement of various materials. It has unique physico-chemical properties, such as tensile strength, conductivity, and dispersibility in water. carbon nanopowder is produced through physical and chemical activation of raw carbonized biomass such as coal, wood chips, or lampblack. carbon nanopowder can be morphed into a variety of shapes, sizes, and structures through various methods, including thermal, chemical, electrochemical, or physical techniques, such as laser ablation, ball milling, jet milling, and chemical vapor deposition. Various types of carbon-based nanopowders have been developed, from amorphous to crystalline. The most well-known crystalline carbon allotropes are diamonds and graphite; amorphous carbon allotropes include charcoal, lampblack, and coal.
The pore structure of the ACC-treated 2-h and 8-h TC carbons was investigated by nitrogen gas adsorption–desorption (N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both samples had closed pore structures after ACC, but the pore volume distributions were slightly different between the two samples. The pore volumes of the ACC-treated 8-h TC carbons were larger than those of the 2-h ACC-treated carbons.
The dimensions of the ACC-treated carbon particles were determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images clearly showed that the morphologies of the ACC-treated 2 and 8-h TC carbons changed with the number of pulverizing cycles (passes). For example, the strand-shaped particles in the 2-h pass sample became more spherical as the pulverization process progressed to the ACC-treated 8-h pass sample.