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onvert coal into Nano graphite
A team of international researchers has proven that it only requires 15 minutes for pulverized coke to be converted into high-value coal
. Researchers explain how to successfully convert raw coal into Nano-graphite using microwave ovens in a study published in Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects. Nano graphite has many uses, including as a lubricant for fire extinguishers and lithium-ion batteries.
They believe that this “metal assisted microwave processing one step method” is a relatively simple and inexpensive method to convert coal in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin. According to TeYu Chen’s team at the University of Wyoming despite previous studies showing that microwaves could reduce coal moisture and remove sulfur as well as other minerals but most of these methods required special chemical pretreatment of the raw coal. The experiment only required the pulverization of the coal. After that, put the coal powder on copper foil. Seal it in glass containers with a mix of hydrogen and an argon mixture. Finally, put it into the microwave.
Chris Masi is the lead author. He stated that “by cutting the copper foil in a fork-shaped shape, microwaves will generate sparks. These can create extremely high temperatures of over 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit a few second.” The high temperature then transforms pulverized coke. This process also involves copper foil, hydrogen and polycrystalline graphite. The team (which includes researchers from New York Nepal and China) believes this new coal-to-graphite conversion method can improve and be implemented at a large scale in order to produce higher quality graphite materials.
It is a good idea to use a bilingual translator
This is a natural form of crystalline Carbon. It is a mineral element found in metamorphic or igneous rocks. Graphite can be described as a mineral that is characterized by extremes. It is extremely soft and cleaves easily with very little pressure. It also has a low specific gravity. Compared to other materials, it is highly resistant to heat. This extreme property gives it a variety of uses in manufacturing and metallurgy.
Graphite, a mineral, is formed when carbon is heated and pressed in Earth’s crust or upper mantle. To produce graphite, temperatures and pressures between 750°C and 75,000 lbs per square inch are needed. These correspond to granulite facies.
The vast majority of the graphite found on Earth’s surface was created at the convergent plates boundaries when organic-rich limestones and shales were subjected under the pressure and heat of regional metamorphism. This results in marble, schist, or gneiss containing tiny crystals of graphite.
If the concentrations of graphite are high enough, the rocks can be mined. They are then crushed into a size that releases the flakes and the low-density material is removed using froth floatation or specific gravity. The product produced is referred to as “flake-graphite.”
Metamorphism can lead to the formation of graphite. The organic material of coal is primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The heat generated by metamorphism destroys coal’s organic molecules, releasing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. What is left after metamorphism is almost pure carbon that crystallizes to form mineral graphite.
This graphite appears in “seams”, which correspond with the original layer coal. This material is mined as “amorphous Graphite.” This is not the correct use of “amorphous,” as it has a crystalline composition. The material is similar in appearance to coal lumps, without the banding.
Diamonds and Graphite
Diamond and carbon are two minerals that contain carbon. Diamond is formed in the mantle by extreme heat and pressure. The majority of graphite that is found on Earth’s surfaces was formed at lower temperatures and under less pressure in the crust. Graphite has the same chemical composition as diamond but is structurally very different.
The graphite sheets are formed by a hexagonal web of carbon atoms. Each sheet is one atom thick. The sheets are not well connected, and can easily be cleaved or slid over each other when a slight force is applied. Graphite is characterized by its low hardness. It also has a perfect cleavage and slick feel.
Carbon atoms of diamonds, however, are linked in a framework structure. Each carbon atom has strong covalent bonds that link it to four other carbons in a three-dimensional web. The arrangement of the atoms keeps them firmly in position and makes diamond a hard material.
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