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gold iii chloride hydrate is one of the most common and versatile compounds of gold. It is hygroscopic and highly soluble in water, ethanol and ether. It is used as an oxidizing agent and for catalyzing various organic reactions.
The chemical properties of gold iii chloride are related to its crystalline structure, which is monoclinic in nature. It sublimes at elevated temperatures. The chloride ions (Cl-) are covalently bonded to the metal, and conduct electricity when fused or dissolved in water.
Typical applications for gold iii chloride include: a catalyst and cell body stains in bright field and dark field microscopy, as an anode in an electroplating solution, and as a starting solution to form other gold compounds. It also serves as a precursor for the preparation of ultra pure gold metal.
Due to its toxicity, Gold iii chloride should be handled with gloves and goggles. It should not be contacted directly.
Gold(III) chloride is the most widely used compound of gold. It has the formula AuCl3 and has a high oxidation state of +3, which is typical for many gold compounds. It can be oxidized in aqueous solutions to gold metal and gold oxide (Au2O3), or decomposed by alkalis to form sodium aurate (NaAuO2) and to ketones under moderate heating.
The chemical structure of the compound is similar to that of iodine (III) chloride, with the centers being square planar and reminiscent of the bi tetrahedral structures adopted by AlCl3 and FeCl3. Ketones are generally formed in over 90% yield under these conditions.