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How to improve the electrochemical properties of nano-silicon anode materials?
The development and application of energy sources that are new is a crucial research direction that governments all over the world attach the greatest importance. The efficiency of the battery has a vital impact on the advancement of the modern energy sector. There are a variety of batteries used for energy storage elements. The primary research area is lithium-ion batteries, which are used as power batteries and energy storage batteries. There are numerous applications. Efficiency, capacity as well as the rate of retention of lithium-ion batteries are all important indicators, and their capacity is one of the most important.
The components of lithium-ion batteries include electrodes with positive and negative voltages and separators electrolytes, packaging components, and separators. The improvement in lithium-ion battery performance is closely related to the development of negative and positive materials. There are three types of cathode materials: lithium iron phosphate and cobalt dioxide. Their specific capacity to cycle is less than 200mAh/g. Anode materials include silicon-carbon and graphite. They also have various cycle ratios. The capacity is generally less than 420mAh/g, and expanding the power of anode materials is an important research field widely recognized. Nano-silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of up to 4200mAh/g. Its low primary efficiency and the poor retention of cycles are major reasons that restrict its use.
The following methods are utilized mostly to improve the electrochemical properties and performance of silicon-based materials for anodes:
(1) Nano silicon materials:
Nanometerization in the zero-dimension may reduce the amount of silicon that changes in absolute volume. Nanometerization in one dimension reduces radial volume changes when charging and discharging. Two-dimensional nanometerization minimizes the volume change perpendicularly to the film.
(2) Silicon alloy materials:
One of these is inert elements (Cu Fe, Mn and Ti, etc.). that do not react with lithium. The inert phase of metal has excellent conductivity and speeds up the diffusion of Li+. It also serves as a buffer matrix. The other kind of phase can react with lithium. For the active metals (Al Mg, Sn, Sb, etc.) of the deintercalation reaction, the lithium-intercalation potential platforms of the active metals and silicon are quite different, and the lithium compound generated by the active metal intercalation can be used as a buffer matrix.
(3) Silicon carbon anode material:
Nano Silicon anode materials give complete play to the outstanding electrical conductivity and durability of carbon materials. However, the low retention of cycles in nanosilicon anode materials is still one of the biggest issues that hinder its use. The retention rate of nano silicon anode materials can be enhanced by coating silicon particles with carbon, or by converting some of them into silicon carbide. It is obvious that silicon anode materials should be used with graphite based anodes. The percentage of silicon used for this purpose should be less than 15 15%.
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