livermorium neutrons are produced in nuclear fusion reactions. They are also released during the formation of a new element (such as uranium).
Element 116 was first synthesized in 2000 by researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and scientists from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. Its name, livermorium, honors the city of Livermore and LLNL, where the experiment took place.
The discovery of element 116 was made in a team led by Yuri Oganessian, Vladimir Utyonkov and Kenton Moody at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. The team bombarded curium targets with calcium to produce the element.
During the reaction, the nuclei of calcium-48 fused with the nuclei of curium-248. This resulted in the production of eight more atoms of livermorium.
Chemically, livermorium is a p-block transactinide element in group 16 of the periodic table. It is the heaviest element in this group. It is predicted to have some similar properties to the lighter homologous elements (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium) but it is also expected to behave as a post transition metal.
The atomic mass of livermorium is 293 g/mol. It has a covalent radius of 164 pm. This reflects the fact that the atomic nucleus occupies a much smaller space than the atom’s outer shell of electrons. The difference is a measure of the nuclear binding energy which holds the nucleus together.