Nano diamond has been widely studied in biological, electronic and quantum engineering fields

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Overview of Nano diamond The nano-diamonds, also known as diamond nanoparticles, are diamonds smaller than 1 micron in diameter and can be created by an explosive or meteorite strike. Due to its low cost, ease of large-scale synthetic, surface functionalization, high biocompatibility and easy synthesis, nano diamond has been extensively studied in the electronic, biological and quantum engineering areas.
Structure of nanodiamond
It is important to consider three main aspects of the structure and function of diamond nanoparticles. Through a variety of diffraction experiments, it was determined that the shape and size of diamond nanoparticles are spherical or rectangular. The diamond cage is the core of diamond nanoparticles. It is mostly made of carbon. Although the core structure is very similar to the diamond, the diamond nanoparticles have a surface similar to graphite. A recent study revealed that the surface is mainly made of carbon. However, it also contains a lot of phenol and pyrrole as well as sulfonic, carboxylic, and hydroxyl groups. Sometimes, there are defects in the structure of diamond-nanoparticles. A recent study has shown that the frequency and size of nitrogen-vacancy center decreases with diamond nanoparticles.
Production methods for nano-diamond
Other than the explosion, other synthesis methods include hydrothermal, ion bombardment and laser bombardment, microwave crystal chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), ultrasonic synthesizing, and electrochemical. High-purity nanoparticles can also be produced by high-pressure and high-temperature graphite C3N4 decomposition. For commercial production of Nano Diamonds, the industry standard is detonation-synthesis. The most common explosive used to produce them is a mixture trinitrotoluene/hexose or monosaccharide.
The explosion takes place in a stainless steel chamber that is sealed and oxygen-free. It produces Nano diamonds as well as other graphite compound averaging 5 nanometers. Nano diamonds can only be created by detonation synthesis if there is no oxygen. This happens at temperatures above 3000K and pressures over 15 GPa. To prevent the formation nanoparticles of diamond, the oxidation system must be rapidly cooled to increase the production of Nano-diamonds. This is because diamond remains the most stable under such conditions. Detonation synthesizers use liquid and gas coolants like water, water-based mousse and ice. Detonation results in synthesis, which is a mixture nano diamond particles and graphite carbon forms. Therefore, thorough cleaning must be done to remove all impurities. To remove metal and SP2 impurities, either solution phase nitric acids oxidation or gaseous Ozone treatment are used.
Application prospect of Nano diamond
Nano diamond’s strength, hardness, thermal conductivity and biocompatibility are unique, making it a popular choice for precision polishing, lubrication and high-performance metal matrix composites.
Nano diamond is a material of rich characteristics and connotations. This is an area that presents great opportunities and challenges. Nano diamond is a product of years of research and production. This material can be used to produce raw materials, defense industry, precision polishing industry, biomedicine, electronic, mechanical and chemical industries. There are many applications for this material in our everyday lives. I believe it will have a wide application in other industries in the near future.
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