Tin oxide powder is white or yellow tetragonal or hexagonal tetragonal or orthorhombic crystals. It has an exceptional transparent conductivity and melting point of 1630. It was the first transparent conductive materials to be commercially used. To improve conductivity and stability it’s often doped using SnO2, Sb or F.
Classification of Tin Oxide
There are two types of Tin Oxide substances: Tin monoxide SnO, and Tin dioxide SnO2. Tin monoxide (black cubic crystal) has a density of 6.46g/cm3 (0). It is not soluble in water, but is readily soluble when acid is used. Cassiterite’s main constituent is Tin dioxide, which is white tetragonal glass. The melting point of the crystal is 1630. Sublimated at 18001900. Density is about 6.95g/cm3. It is insoluble in water and hardly dissolves in acid. However, concentrated sulfuric acid can be long-term heated to dissolve it. Tin monoxide easily becomes tin oxide when it is heated in the atmosphere. If the air is heated, there will be a proportionation reaction: 4SnO -Sn3O4+Sn
Tin monoxide cannot be disintegrated in strong alkali solutions. It also exhibits obvious reduction. Tin dioxide is very stable against heat and oxygen. It can be eutectic by strong alkali and formed solublestannate. Co-heating Tin (II), salt solution, and strong alkali can produce Tin Monoxide. Tin dioxide can also be made by heating metal tin in the air, or by dissolving concentrated nitric Acid in water. After heating and drying, it will become liquid.
1. Sol-gel method
Because of its product consistency, high purity, and low synthesis temp. Solgel is a very successful process. The preparation of nanotin oxide is another popular use for this method. This method produces powder with uniform particle sizes, high specific surfaces, low firing temperatures, and high activity. Nanoparticles become agglomerated easily due to their surface tension. Some researchers recently discovered methods like freeze drying, supercritical fluid drying and vacuum drying to solve this issue. Supercritical fluid drying is one of the best, since it removes Surface tension and capillary actions during drying.
2. Hydrothermal heating
A hydrothermal reaction is any chemical reaction that takes place under extreme pressure and temperature using aqueous solutions as the react medium. This method can be used in closed containers. For the crystallization or reaction of several precursors, it is possible to heat the container and create an unusual physical and chemical environment. A hydrothermal preparation of nanoparticles has the following characteristics: complete crystal grain development; small particles size; uniform distribution; less particle agglomeration; pure composition.
3. Method of Arc gasification
Production equipment in the arc-gasification synthesis process is power supply equipment and pit reactor. Refined tin is heated to 500°C in liquid form and then heated to 2000°C in an electric oven. A large quantity of tin vapor can be produced by the violent arc gasification process. After cooling, it is collected using dust collection equipment. This powder contains trace amounts of tin, and is then burned in high heat to create tinoxide.
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