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Shape memory alloys are special alloys that have good plasticity and can restore their original shape automatically at a given temperature.
Nitinol alloy is a form memory alloy. It is a unique alloy that is capable of restoring its plastic deformation back to its original state at a specified temperature. Its expansion rate exceeds 20%, its damping characteristics are ten times greater than those of ordinary springs and it has a corrosion resistance that is superior to the best medical stainless-steel at the moment. It is one of the best functional materials.
The memory alloy is not only unique for its shape memory, but it also offers excellent wear resistance and corrosion resistance. It has high damping properties, too.
Nitinol Powder Special Properties
1. Shape memory properties (shape-memory) Shape memory is formed when the parent phase for a particular shape is cooled to below Mf temperatures from above Af temperatures. This martensite can then be deformed and heated back to Af. When the reverse phase is changed, the material automatically returns to its parent phase. The Nitinol phase change process that causes the shape memory is thermally induced.
2. Superelasticity When a force is applied to a sample, it can cause tensile strains that are much larger than the elastic limit strain. The strains will automatically return when the external force is removed. In comparison with shape memory, superelasticity does not involve thermal energy. Superelasticity, in a nutshell, means that stress doesn’t increase with strain increase within a specific deformation range. The superelasticity can be classified into linear and nonlinear. Nonlinear superelasticity is the resultant of stress-induced martensitic phase transformations and their reverse phase transformations during loading and releasing in a temperature range above Af. The nonlinear pseudoelasticity is called phase-transformation pseudoelasticity. Nitinol’s phase-change pseudoelasticity can be as high as 8%.
3. Sensitivity of orthodontic wires to temperature changes: The orthodontic power and CoCr alloy orthopaedic wire are not affected by temperature changes. The temperature in the oral cavity affects the corrective force of super-elastic Nickel-Titanium alloy orthodontic wire. When the amount deformation is constant. Corrective force increases with temperature. On one hand, the temperature can increase the speed of tooth movement. The temperature changes within the oral cavity stimulates blood flow, thereby nourishing the repair cells during tooth movement. Maintain vitality and normal functions. Orthodontists are unable to precisely control and measure the orthodontic forces in the oral environment.
4. The corrosion resistance of Nickel-Titanium Wire is comparable to that of stainless Steel Wire.
5. Anti-toxicity – Nitinol, the shape memory metal, has a chemical composition that is unique. It’s an atomic-alloy, like nickel-titanium. Nickel, however, is known for its carcinogenic properties. In normal conditions, the titanium oxide surface layer acts as barrier. This makes Ni-Ti alloy biocompatible. TiXOy, TixNiOy, and TixNiOy are surface layers that can inhibit Ni release.
6. Gentle orthodontic power: currently commercially used orthopedic wires include austenitic stainless steel wires, cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy wires, nickel-chromium alloy wires, Australian alloy wires, gold alloy wires and ss-titanium alloy wires. These orthodontic wires have been tested in tensile and three-point bend tests. Nitinol’s unloading platform is the lowest, flattest and thus can deliver the most durable and gentle correction force.
7. Good shock-absorption properties: The greater vibration caused by the chewing and the night molars on the archwire, the more damage will be done to the periodontal tissue and the roots. Different arch wire experiments have shown that the vibration amplitude for stainless steel wires is higher than super-elastic nickel-ti wire. The initial vibratory amplitude for super-elastic NiTi wire is less than half that of stainless wire. The health of your teeth is important. Traditional archwires, like stainless steel wires can increase root resorption.
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