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Graphene consists only of an atomic layer graphite, a layer composed of sp2-bonded atoms of carbon arranged in a honeycomb or hexagonal lattice. Graphite is a mineral that contains multiple layers of graphene. Graphene and graphite have slightly different structural compositions and production methods. This article will focus on the differences between these two materials.
Graphite is a naturally occurring carbon allotrope. It occurs naturally in metamorphic rock in many parts of the globe, including parts of South America. Asia and North America. The reduction of deposited carbon compound during metamorphism is responsible for the formation of this mineral.
The chemical bonding in graphite is similar to that in diamond. The difference in hardness between these two compounds is due to the different lattice structures of the carbon atoms. Diamond contains three-dimensional bonds while graphite has two-dimensional bonds. Each layer of graphite contains weaker intermolecular bonding between the carbon atoms. This allows graphite to be a soft, ductile and flexible material because the layers slide against one another.
Multiple studies have proven that graphite is a mineral of exceptional quality with unique properties. It has excellent heat and electrical conductivity, and it maintains its natural strength and stiffness even at temperatures higher than 3600degC. It is also chemically resistant and self-lubricating.
Under standard conditions, graphite remains very stable despite its many forms. In various applications, graphite comes in different forms.
Graphite’s unique properties are superior to graphite. The thin plane of graphite makes it unsuitable for use as a structure material. Contrary to popular belief, graphene has the highest strength of any material. It’s more than 400 times stronger than diamonds and over 300 times stronger that A36 structural steel.
Due to graphite’s planar structure its electronic, thermal and acoustic properties are highly anisotropic. The phonons can pass more easily through an aeroplane than they do when traveling through one. The graphene material has an extremely high electron mobility. Like graphite, there are p(p), free electrons within each carbon atom.
It is not surprising that graphene conducts electricity much better than graphite. This is due to electrons appearing as quasi-particles. They behave as though they were massless and can travel for long distances with no scattering. To achieve this high level of conductivity, it is necessary to dope the graphene to get past the zero density state visible at the Dirac’s point.
Graphene Production or Separation
Scientists employ many different techniques to produce graphene. Mechanical peeling is also known as the tape technology and it’s one of the most effective ways to make single-layer, or even few-layer, graphene. Many research institutes are working to develop the most efficient way to produce high-quality graphene at a large scale.
The most appropriate technology for producing graphene is Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD). The reduction process can be used to extract carbon from carbon-rich resources. This technology has a few disadvantages. It is hard to find a suitable substrate for growing the graphene and difficult to remove it from the substrate.
Other methods of growing graphene are thermal engineering and carbon dioxide reduction. Due to the lower cost of production, this technique has attracted a lot attention. However, the current quality of the produced graphene does not match the material’s theoretical potential. More time is required to finish the project.
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