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What is titanium Nitride?
Titanium-nitride is a non-stoichiometric compound. Its stable composition range is TiN0.37-TiN1.16, and the nitrogen content can be changed within a specific range without causing changes in the structure of the TiN. TiN, a nonstoichiometric material, has a range of stable compositions between TiN0.37 and TiN1.16. Nitrogen contents can also be adjusted within this range without altering the TiN structure. The TiN Powder is usually yellow-brown. The ultrafine TiN Powder is black. TiN Crystals are golden-yellow. TiN has melting points of 2950degC and a density between 5.43-5.44g/cm3. It also has a Mohs Hardness of 8-9 as well as high thermal shock resistance. TiN’s melting point is higher than the melting points of most transition-metal nitrides. The density of TiN is lower than the majority metal nitrides. This makes it a material that is very heat resistant. The TiN crystallization is very similar in structure to TiC. However, the C atoms have been replaced by N atoms.
Titanium Nitride as a Biomedical Material
Clinical medicine has widely used the occluder for the treatment of congenital diseases, such as the atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and patent arteriosus. Most common concentrics occluders contain nickel up to 55% in nickel-titanium metal alloy materials. The body can become poisoned and allergic to nickel, which in turn may cause cancer. The surface membrane of the occluder Nickel-Titanium alloy may be damaged, and internal nickel ions released in the complex human environment can increase nickel content. This further deteriorates the tissue compatibility.
According to relevant studies, because titanium nitride is a biocompatible material (which was previously used in coronary-stents), thrombus formation is lower than with nickel-titanium. To address this problem, scientists developed a Cera Ceramic Membrane Occluder, using high-energy coating technology. It maintains both the original interventricular and atrial septal septal occluder designs based on nickel-titanium occluders. The design of the occluders and patent arteriosus devices uses plasma technology in order to evenly coat the surface of nickel-titanium alloy powder with a titanium nitride (TiN) film. The metal coating of titanium and C,N,O and other compounds is transformed by ion technologies into the biological layers. This layer improves corrosion resistance and compatibility between biological tissues and human blood. The comparison of the data from animal experiments shows that the Cera membrane occluder has a much higher performance in terms cell creeping growth than a nickel-titanium standard occluder. It significantly reduces thrombosis risk and helps repair congenital heart defects. Platelet adhesion rates and hemolysis are also lower compared to the nickel-titanium standard occluder. Cera’s occluder was approved by other countries, including the European Union, India and Brazil. The Cera occluder has been used by more than 2,000 patients with congenital hearts disease.
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