Introduction to BAM Powder AlMgB14
Magnesium aluminum boride Oder Al3Mg3B56
The common name for this is BAM
It is a mixture of aluminum, magnesium, boron. Its molecular formula is
AlMgB14, and its chemical structure is closer to Al0.75Mg0.75B14
.It is a ceramic alloy with very high wear resistance, very low sliding friction coefficient and very high wear resistance. This alloy achieved a record 0.04 in the unlubricated AlMGB14TiB2 composite and 0.02 when lubricated.BAM was first described in 1970. It is an orthogonal structure, with four icosahedral B12 unit cells. This super-hard material’s thermal expansion coefficient is comparable to concrete and steel.
Physicochemical properties of BAM AlMgB14 powder Structure
Most super-hard materials feature simple, highly symmetrical, crystal structures such as diamond cubes and sphalerite. BAM has 64 atoms in each cell, but a more complex and low-symmetry crystal structure. The crystal cell’s most distinctive feature is the four boron-containing, orthogonal icosahedrons. Each icosahedron is composed of 12 boron molecules. The eight remaining boron elements connect the icosahedron with the other elements within the cell. The lattice has less than one metal site, so the material can usually be identified with the molecular formula AlMgB14. But its chemical composition is closer Al 0.75 mg 0.75 B14. This is common with borides (see Boride and Boron Carbid Crystal Structures for boron-rich Metals). BAM cell parameters are: a = 1.0313mm, B =0.8115mnm; C = 0.5848mnm; Z =4 (four structural units per cells), space group Imma and Pearson symbol oI68. Density 2.59 g/cm3. The melting temperature is approximately 2000°C.
BAM has an energy bandgap of 1.5 eV. The resistance depends on the purity of the sample and is about 104Ohm*cm. The Seebeck coefficient ranges between -5.4 to -8.0 mV/K. This is due to electron transfer from metal atoms onto the boron Icosahedron. This is useful in thermoelectric applications.
The hardness and the toughness to break
BAM powders are microhardened to 32-35GPa. You can increase it to 45GPa with nitrization of boron rich titanium alloy. Also, the fracture toughness may be improved by TiB2 or deposition quasi-amorphous BAM materials. It will lose its hardness if you add AlN or TiC. BAM is super-hard by definition if it has a hardness value above 40GPa. BAM-TiB2 Composites are characterized by a 60 vol.% TiB2 content. This is the highest level of hardness and toughness. With a TiB 2 content of 70-80%, the wear rate could be increased by about 10% at the cost of about 10% loss. The titanium B2 additve is a wear-resistant metal with a hardness between 28 and 35gpa.
AlMgB14’s thermal growth coefficient (TEC), also known by thermal expansion coefficient, COTE was calculated as 9 x (10-6) (K-1), using expansion and high-temperature Xray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. This value is very close to the COTE of steel, titanium and concrete. Based on the AlMgB14 reported hardness value and the wear-resistant material used, the COTE AlMgB14 can help determine the coating application method as well as the performance of the parts.
BAM/TiB2 is a composite of BAM/TiB2 (70% of TiB2 in volume). It has the lowest friction coefficient, with 0.04-0.05 dry scraping of diamond tips. This value is reduced to 0.02 by water glycol-based oils.
|BAM AlMgB14 Powder Properties|
|Other Names||Magnesium aluminum boride, Al3Mg3B56, BAM, AlMgB14|
|Appearance||From gray to black powder|
Aluminum Magnesium Boride BAM AlMgB14 Powder
BAM AlMgB14 Pulp Application
BAM is available commercially and is currently being studied for potential applications.
To reduce friction and improve wear resistance, for example, the pistons, seals, or blades of pumps can be coated in BAM, BAM + TiB2 with either BAM, or BAM+ TiB2. Reduced friction means less energy consumption. It is possible to coat cutting tools with BAM. This will decrease the amount of force needed to cut an object, prolong tool life, and increase cutting speed. A coating of 2-3 microns thickness has been proven to increase tool efficiency and reduce wear.
BAM AlMgB14 Powder
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