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This method is a technology that deposits a thick, solid coating on the surface a substrate using a gas-phase reaction. Due to the fact that the entire reaction in this method is based upon thermodynamics the CVD film offers good adhesion as well as coatingability. It also has a dense film layer and a high film-base adhesive strength.
The processing temperature of this method (generally, 9001200) is high. The high temperatures cause the matrix of steel to soften. Vacuum quenching is required after the processing. The workpiece is easily deformed and the process is complex. The matrix material’s bending strength is reduced. The preparation process will produce harmful waste gases and waste liquids, which can easily cause industrial pollution. This is contrary to the green industry that the country advocates today.
2. Physical vapor deposition (PVD)
This method utilizes physical processes, such as thermal, sputtering and glow discharge discharge to deposit desired coatings on the substrate surface. This includes evaporation coat, sputtering coat and ion-coating technology. The two latter PVD techniques are more widely used today for the preparation of ceramic coatings.
A PVD film’s brittleness makes it easy to peel and crack. This is a linear process, with poor adhesion, and coating properties. During processing, the workpiece is required to swing or rotate. This increases the difficulty in designing the vacuum chamber. There are problems such as an ineffective coating.
3. Liquid deposition
This method forms a chemical film using a wet process. The principle behind the method is to drive hydrolysis through the replacement of ligands between ions so that metal oxide or hydroxide can be deposited onto the substrate as a thin layer coating. The method works under low-temperature/room-temperature conditions. No heat treatment is needed, nor is expensive processing equipment.
The main disadvantage is that the concentration of solution before and after reaction is inconsistant. Also, there are a lot of factors influencing the liquid phase reaction and industrial stability.
4. Thermal Spraying
This technique involves heating a linear material or powder to a molten, semi-melted, state with a heat source, such as a flame or plasma. High-speed droplets are formed and sprayed on the substrate, creating a coating. They can also be used as a protective coating, to restore or strengthen the surface properties of the material and to reduce the size of parts due wear, corrosion or manufacturing tolerances. Plasma spraying, flame spraying and arc-spraying techniques are all part of the method.
5. In-situ Synthesis
The second phase of reinforcement is synthesized without pollution and is distributed evenly, which is an advantage over traditional processes such as powder metallurgy or smelting. The application of in-situ technology has expanded to include metal-based and cermet-based materials.
6. Other Synthetic Methods
Other synthetic methods include liquid EDM surface enhancement, sol-gel, self-propagating heat propagation, melting and cast methods, powder metal methods, mechanical alloying, thermal spraying, melting and cast methods, powder metallurgy, and others. In industrial production, the choice of the preparation process for carbonized-based cermet can be made according to the conditions and requirements of each application.
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